To sum up, despite the traditional innovation hubs such as America and Asia, inventors from European countries, including the Netherlands and Switzerland, took over the dominant positions in food chemistry.
As for the patent-firms-related trends, Chinese representatives were the leaders in prosecuting food chemistry cases that predominantly originated from domestic clients. In Europe, British and German IP law firms represented the highest portion of relevant applications, most of which were from foreign inventors. Dutch, French, and Italian agents also held the upper positions in the rank by handling a substantial number of patent filings for local clients.
Considering the international case exchange, the US representatives sent the largest number of food chemistry cases abroad. At the same time, patent firms from the Netherlands and Italy top the list. On the receiving side, unsurprisingly, IP law firms from the largest jurisdictions such as China, Brazil, or Canada were most frequently getting relevant applications from foreign colleagues or applicants.